One simple change to semi-trailers can reduce total fuel consumption of the rig by 10%. If we could save 10% of US diesel consumption, that would be approximately 277,000 barrels/day or 101 million barrels/year. This is just one simple change which could be retrofitted; it's only the beginning of possible improvements.
Oil production from Alaska averaged 908,000 bbl/day last year (down 55% from its 1988 peak of 2.02 million bbl/day). ANWR reserves are estimated at 6.4 billion barrels. In short, if we started trying to produce ANWR oil today and it first hit the pipeline in 2015, semi-truck boattails could have saved 1/6 of the total oil in the reserve before the first barrel got to a refinery (and probably at a much smaller cost). Improvements which cut consumption by 30% are likely both possible and inexpensive, and would save a full ANWR-worth in the next 20 years.
The US Senate has wisely removed ANWR drilling from the bill to cut the budget. If our Senators are wiser, they should also insert a provision over-riding state truck length limits for boat-tail extensions and other drag-reducing devices.
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